The Sweet Potato Chips is really a starchy, tuberous crop in the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum. In several contexts, potato refers to the edible tuber, but it surely also can refer to the plant itself. Typical or slang phrases consist of tater, tattie and spud. Potatoes were being released to Europe in the second 50 % of the sixteenth century with the Spanish. Today They're a staple food items in lots of elements of the entire world and an integral Component of much of the entire world's food items source. As of 2014, potatoes were being the entire world's fourth-most significant food items crop just after maize (corn), wheat, and rice.
Wild potato species are available throughout the Americas, from America to southern Chile. The potato was originally believed to have already been domesticated independently in a number of areas, but afterwards genetic testing of the wide array of cultivars and wild species traced a single origin for potatoes. In the region of existing-working day southern Peru and Excessive northwestern Bolivia, from a species during the Solanum brevicaule intricate, potatoes were being domesticated approximately seven,000?ten,000 many years ago. During the Andes region of South The us, wherever the species is indigenous, some close relations of the potato are cultivated.
Subsequent millennia of selective breeding, there are actually now around one,000 differing types of potatoes. Around ninety nine% of presently cultivated potatoes worldwide descended from varieties that originated during the lowlands of south-central Chile, that have displaced formerly well-liked varieties in the Andes.
The significance of the potato as being a food items supply and culinary component differs by region and remains changing. It continues to be A vital crop in Europe, Primarily jap and central Europe, wherever per capita output remains the highest in the world, whilst probably the most speedy growth in output in the last couple a long time has occurred in southern and jap Asia, with China and India primary the entire world in All round output as of 2014.
Getting a nightshade just like tomatoes, the vegetative and fruiting elements of the potato comprise the toxin solanine and are not suit for human use. Normal potato tubers that were grown and stored effectively make glycoalkaloids in amounts sufficiently small to get negligible to human wellness, but if green sections of the plant (particularly sprouts and skins) are exposed to light-weight, the tuber can accumulate a large ample concentration of glycoalkaloids to impact human wellness.
The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the title Employed in Spain). The Spanish Royal Academy suggests the Spanish word is really a hybrid of the Ta?no batata (sweet potato) along with the Quechua papa (potato). The title originally referred on the sweet potato Even though the two plants aren't closely similar. The sixteenth-century English herbalist John Gerard referred to sweet potatoes as "popular potatoes", and used the phrases "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" with the species we now simply call "potato". In a lot of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is manufactured amongst The 2. Potatoes are from time to time generally known as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in America, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.
The title spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or maybe a hole) ahead of the planting of potatoes. The word has an unfamiliar origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as being a time period for a short knife or dagger, possibly connected with the Latin "spad-" a word root which means "sword"; cf. Spanish "espada", English "spade" and "spadroon". It subsequently transferred around to a number of digging applications. All around 1845, the title transferred on the tuber itself, the initial record of the utilization currently being in New Zealand English. The origin of the word "spud" has erroneously been attributed to an 18th-century activist group devoted to trying to keep the potato from Britain, calling itself The Society with the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet (S.P.U.D.). It absolutely was Mario Pei's 1949 The Tale of Language which can be blamed with the word's Untrue origin. Pei writes, "the potato, for its section, was in disrepute some generations ago. Some Englishmen who didn't extravagant potatoes fashioned a Society with the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the leading words During this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this is false, and there is no proof that a Society with the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet ever existed.
Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that expand about 60 cm (24 in) large, dependant upon range, Using the leaves dying back just after flowering, fruiting and tuber formation. They bear white, pink, pink, blue, or purple bouquets with yellow stamens. Generally speaking, the tubers of varieties with white bouquets have white skins, whilst All those of varieties with colored bouquets are likely to get pinkish skins. Potatoes are mostly cross-pollinated by insects which include bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, while a substantial degree of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers type in reaction to lowering working day length, Even though this tendency has become minimized in professional varieties.
Soon after flowering, potato plants make modest green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each that contains about 300 seeds. Like all elements of the plant besides the tubers, the fruit comprise the toxic alkaloid solanine and are therefore unsuitable for use. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also known as "accurate potato seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. New varieties grown from seed could be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers Lower to include at the least 1 or 2 eyes, or cuttings, a exercise Employed in greenhouses with the manufacture of healthy seed tubers. Plants propagated from tubers are clones of the mother or father, While All those propagated from seed make a variety of various varieties.